Guide to CSRD: Crucial Data Points and Disclosure Requirements for Compliance


The Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD) represents a significant shift in how companies report on their environmental, social, and governance (ESG) impacts. This directive aims to enhance the transparency and accountability of companies operating within the EU and beyond, ensuring they contribute positively to sustainable development. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the CSRD, its implications, and how companies can prepare for compliance. 

What is the CSRD? 

The Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD) is a legislative initiative by the European Union designed to improve and extend the scope of sustainability reporting by companies. It builds on the previous Non-Financial Reporting Directive (NFRD) by expanding the requirements for disclosure and increasing the number of companies subject to these regulations. 

Key Differences from the NFRD 

  • Scope Expansion: The CSRD applies to a broader range of companies, including more detailed and comprehensive reporting requirements. 
  • Mandatory Assurance: Unlike the NFRD, the CSRD mandates third-party assurance of sustainability information. 
  • Detailed Reporting Requirements: The CSRD requires detailed reporting on a wide range of ESG factors, reflecting a double materiality perspective. 


Objectives of the CSRD 

  • Enhance the quality and comparability of sustainability information. 
  • Encourage businesses to adopt sustainable practices. 
  • Provide stakeholders with better information to make informed decisions. 


Who Needs to Comply? 

The CSRD applies to a broad range of companies, including: 

  • Large public-interest entities (PIEs) with over 500 employees. 
  • All large companies meeting two of the following three criteria: more than 250 employees, €40 million in net turnover, or €20 million in total assets. 
  • Listed small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), although they have more extended timelines for compliance. 
  • Non-EU companies with significant EU operations, specifically those generating a net turnover of more than €150 million in the EU. 

Additionally, financial market participants and specific sectors with high sustainability risks are also under the purview of the CSRD. 


Timeline for CSRD Compliance 

  • 2024: Financial year 2024 for reports published in 2025: Large public-interest entities already subject to the NFRD. 
  • 2025: Financial year 2025 for reports published in 2026: Large companies not currently subject to the NFRD. 
  • 2026: The financial year 2026 for reports published in 2027: Listed SMEs, small and non-complex credit institutions, and captive insurance undertakings. 
  • 2028: Non-EU companies with significant EU operations. 


Important Milestones and Deadlines for Different Types of Companies 

Key milestones include: 

  • 2024: Adoption of the first set of sustainability reporting standards by the European Commission. 
  • 2025: Companies subject to the CSRD begin reporting on the 2024 financial year. 
  • 2027: Assurance requirements for sustainability information come into effect.


Recommendations for Early Preparation 

Companies should begin their preparations early by: 

  • Conducting gap analyses of current reporting practices. 
  • Investing in data collection and management systems. 
  • Engaging with stakeholders to understand their reporting expectations. 
  • Training staff on the new requirements and methodologies. 


Key CSRD Disclosure Requirements 

The CSRD disclosure requirements emphasize the concept of double materiality, requiring companies to report on how sustainability issues affect their business and how their business impacts society and the environment. This dual approach ensures comprehensive disclosure of all relevant ESG information. 

Breakdown of Reporting Areas 

Environmental Matters: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Pollution, Resource Use, Biodiversity 

Companies must disclose: 

  • Greenhouse gas emissions and reduction targets. 
  • Pollution levels and mitigation efforts. 
  • Resource use, including water and raw materials. 
  • Biodiversity impacts and conservation initiatives. 

Social Matters: Employee Welfare, Human Rights, Community Engagement 

Disclosures should cover: 

  • Employee working conditions, diversity, and inclusion. 
  • Human rights policies and due diligence processes. 
  • Community engagement and social impact activities. 

Governance Matters: Business Ethics, Anti-Corruption Measures, Governance Frameworks 

Governance-related disclosures include: 

  • Business ethics and conduct codes. 
  • Anti-corruption and anti-bribery policies. 
  • Corporate governance structures and practices. 

Specific Examples of Required Data Points and Metrics 

Examples of specific data points include: 

  • Scope 1, 2, and 3 greenhouse gas emissions. 
  • Gender diversity ratios in management. 
  • Number of incidents of non-compliance with human rights policies. 
  • Percentage of revenue from sustainable activities. 

Reporting Guidelines for CSRD 

  • Standardized Frameworks Developed by the European Financial Reporting Advisory Group (EFRAG): The CSRD mandates the use of standardized reporting frameworks developed by EFRAG, ensuring consistency and comparability across companies and industries. 
  • Digital Formatting Requirements for Accessibility and Analysis: Companies must present their sustainability information in a digital, machine-readable format to facilitate accessibility and analysis by stakeholders and regulatory bodies. 
  • Assurance Requirements for Verifying Compliance: The CSRD requires companies to obtain assurance for their sustainability reports, enhancing the credibility and reliability of the disclosed information. 
  • Integration with Financial Reporting: Sustainability information must be integrated with financial reporting, providing a holistic view of the company’s performance and ensuring coherence between financial and non-financial disclosures. 
  • Forward-Looking Information and Sustainability Targets: Companies are encouraged to disclose forward-looking information, including sustainability targets and strategies for achieving them, to demonstrate their long-term commitment to ESG goals. 

Challenges and Solutions in CSRD Compliance 

Complying with the CSRD presents several challenges for companies, including the need for comprehensive data collection, ensuring data accuracy, and integrating sustainability reporting with financial reporting. These challenges can be daunting, but with the right tools and strategies, they can be effectively managed. Here are some common challenges and practical solutions: 

1. Data Collection and Management 

Challenge: Gathering and managing extensive data across various sustainability metrics can be overwhelming, particularly for large organizations with complex operations. 

Solution: Utilizing a platform like IRIS CARBON® simplifies data management by providing a unified platform for comprehensive ESG reporting. It offers ready-to-use templates and integrated workflows that streamline the entire process, from data collection to reporting. This ensures that all relevant data is captured accurately and efficiently. 

2. Ensuring Data Accuracy and Compliance 

Challenge: Maintaining the accuracy of sustainability data and ensuring compliance with various ESG frameworks and regulations is critical but challenging. 

Solution: IRIS CARBON® enhances accuracy and compliance through its audit-ready features, including audit trails and advanced XBRL reporting. The platform aligns with major ESG frameworks, ensuring that your reports meet regulatory requirements and industry standards. This reduces the risk of errors and enhances the reliability of your sustainability disclosures. 

3. Integrating Sustainability Reporting with Financial Reporting 

Challenge: Integrating sustainability data with traditional financial reporting can be complex, requiring a seamless transition between the two reporting streams. 

Solution: IRIS CARBON® facilitates integrated reporting by unifying ESG efforts with financial data. The platform’s centralized data management and automated workflows make it easier to produce cohesive and comprehensive reports that integrate both financial and non-financial information. This holistic approach provides a clearer picture of the company’s overall performance and sustainability efforts. 

4. Effective Stakeholder Communication 

Challenge: Communicating sustainability efforts and performance to stakeholders in a clear and impactful manner is essential for building trust and transparency. 

Solution: IRIS CARBON® enhances stakeholder communication by offering data-driven insights and effective communication tools. The platform provides actionable insights that can drive informed decision-making and showcase your commitment to sustainability. Additionally, it enables effective stakeholder engagement through clear and impactful reporting, fostering trust and transparency. 

5. Managing ESG Risks and Improving Brand Reputation 

Challenge: Proactively managing ESG risks and demonstrating a commitment to responsible business practices are crucial for maintaining a positive brand reputation. 

Solution: IRIS CARBON® helps companies proactively manage ESG risks and improve their brand reputation. By offering data-driven sustainability strategies and 24/7 expert support, the platform ensures that companies can navigate the complexities of ESG reporting and compliance effectively. This proactive approach not only reduces risks but also enhances the company’s reputation as a responsible and sustainable business. 



The CSRD marks a transformative step towards greater corporate accountability and transparency in sustainability reporting. Early preparation and thorough understanding of the directive can help companies not only comply with the CSRD disclosure requirements but also benefit from enhanced stakeholder trust and improved sustainability performance. Embracing the CSRD’s requirements is an opportunity for companies to demonstrate their commitment to sustainability and drive positive change in the global business landscape. 

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