FERC vs. NERC: Unpacking the Responsibilities of Each Organization

October 23, 2023by Team IRIS CARBON0

The world of energy regulation can be a complex and often confusing one. Two organizations that play pivotal roles in regulating and overseeing the electric grid in the United States are the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC). The North American Electric Reliability Corporation and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission are the two important organizations in the electric power industry in the United States. Although they are often mentioned together, they have distinct roles and responsibilities in ensuring the reliability and stability of the nation’s electrical system.

In this blog, we’ll unpack the responsibilities of each organization and explore how they work together to keep the lights on.

Introduction: Understanding FERC and NERC

Before we delve into their global impact, it’s crucial to grasp the roles of FERC and NERC within the United States. FERC is a federal agency responsible for regulating various aspects of the energy sector, including electricity markets and the transmission of electricity across state lines. NERC, on the other hand, is a non-profit organization designated as the Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) for North America. NERC develops and enforces reliability standards for the bulk power system.

FERC Background and Responsibilities

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission was established under the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977. It regulates electric transmission and wholesale sales rates and services principally under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act. It regulates Hydroelectric dam licensing and safety under Part I of the Federal Power Act. FERC oversees natural gas pipeline transportation rates and services principally under the Natural Gas Act. It regulates oil pipeline transportation rates and services under the Interstate Commerce Act. FERC is subject to these statutes and can only operate within what the statutes allow. FERC’s primary mission is to ensure the reliable, efficient, and secure operation of the energy infrastructure while protecting the interests of consumers.

Key Responsibilities of FERC

Regulation of Wholesale Electricity Markets: FERC has authority over wholesale electricity markets. It regulates the rates, terms, and conditions of the sale of electricity in interstate commerce, ensuring fair competition and preventing market manipulation.

  • Oversight of Transmission Infrastructure: FERC oversees the planning and development of the transmission grid to ensure that it remains reliable and resilient. It approves or disapproves of infrastructure projects that could impact the grid’s performance.
  • Hydropower Licensing and Environmental Review: FERC is responsible for licensing hydropower projects and conducts environmental reviews to minimize the impact of these projects on the environment and local communities.
  • Enforcement of Regulations: FERC has enforcement authority to investigate and penalize market manipulation, anti-competitive behavior, and other violations of energy regulations.
  • Cybersecurity and Reliability Standards: FERC collaborates with NERC in setting and enforcing cybersecurity and reliability standards to protect the nation’s critical energy infrastructure from cyber threats and physical attacks.

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NERC: The North American Electric Reliability Corporation

NERC is a non-profit organization established in 1968, and it operates as the Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) in North America. Its primary mission is to ensure the reliability and security of the North American bulk power system. NERC develops and enforces standards for the operation, planning, and security of the electric grid to protect against widespread outages.

The formation was partly in response to a major blackout in the northeast United States in 1965. In the U.S., the Energy Policy Act of 2005 gas the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) jurisdiction over reliability standards. In 2006, FERC certified NERC as the ERO responsible for developing and enforcing mandatory electric reliability standards under the Commission’s oversight.

  • The NERC organization includes six regional reliability councils:
  • Midwest Reliability Organization (MRO)
  • Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC)
  • ReliabilityFirst (RF)
  • SERC Reliability Corporation (SERC)
  • Texas Reliability Entity (TRE)
  • Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)

The entities that belong to the regional councils account for virtually all of the electricity supplied in the U.S., Canada, and the northern portion of Baja California, Mexico. NERC sets forth standards for operation to ensure reliability, and each reliability council implements the standards in their region.

Key Responsibilities of NERC

  • Developing and Enforcing Reliability Standards: NERC is responsible for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards for the bulk power system. These standards cover various aspects, including cybersecurity, operations, planning, and emergency preparedness.
  • Monitoring and Assessment: NERC monitors the performance and compliance of entities responsible for operating and maintaining the grid, such as utilities, grid operators, and power generators. It assesses and reports on grid reliability and security.
  • Crisis Response and Coordination: NERC coordinates emergency response and recovery efforts in case of significant grid disturbances or outages, working closely with utilities, government agencies, and other stakeholders.
  • NERC collaborates with FERC to establish and enforce cybersecurity standards to protect the grid from cyber threats and attacks, thereby safeguarding critical infrastructure.

The Global Impact of FERC and NERC

The influence of FERC and NERC on international grid standards cannot be overstated. As the world grapples with the challenges of an evolving energy landscape and the need for cleaner, more resilient grids, the U.S. energy regulatory framework, guided by FERC and NERC, serves as a model.

By setting high standards for grid reliability, security, and environmental responsibility, FERC and NERC not only safeguard the American electrical grid but also encourage global cooperation and coordination in addressing shared energy challenges. Their efforts are a testament to the importance of working together on an international scale to ensure the availability and security of a stable power supply for all.

FERC and NERC work in tandem to ensure the reliability and security of the electric grid. FERC has regulatory authority and sets policy, while NERC, as the ERO, develops and enforces the technical standards that must be adhered to by industry participants. This collaboration is essential to maintain the resilience of the nation’s power infrastructure.


In conclusion, FERC and NERC are two vital organizations in the complex world of energy regulation. FERC sets the policies and rules, while NERC, as the Electric Reliability Organization, focuses on the nitty-gritty technical details to ensure that the power grid remains reliable and secure. Their complementary roles are critical for maintaining the lights on and the economy running smoothly. Together, they work tirelessly to address the challenges and emerging threats to the nation’s electric grid, ensuring that it can meet the demands of a rapidly evolving energy landscape.

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